Murayama Tōan Antonio (村山等安) was a 17th-century Japanese magistrate of the city of Nagasaki (Nagasaki daikan, 長崎代官). He was born in Nagoya from a humble background, and he was a Christian. He played an important role in the handling of “Nanban trade” in Nagasaki with Christian powers, and led an invasion to Taiwan, before being executed for his Christian faith.
Murayama went to Nagasaki as a youth and was baptized there, receiving the name “Antonio”. He was highly successful in various commercial ventures and became very rich. He also became a famous amateur of European food (南蛮料理, “Nanban-Ryori”, lit. “Southern Barbarian Cuisine”)
Murayama became very influential in Nagasaki, and was nominated as delegate from the municipal council to Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1592. Hideyoshi took a liking to him, and even changed his first name to “Tōan” because he could not pronounce “Antonio” easily. Hideyoshi nominated Murayama as the local tax farmer.
Murayama had very close connections with the Jesuits. He had one of his sons, Francisco, ordinated as parish priest of Nagasaki in 1602.
In 1603-1604 Murayama became Magistrate of Nagasaki in place of Terazawa Hirotaka, following disputes on the price of the silk being provided by the Portuguese. Murayama managed to regulate the silk trade with the Portuguese through the introduction of the “bulk-purchase” pancada system (ito-wappu for the Japanese).
Murayama and his colleague Hasegawa Sahioye Fujihiro got into various disputes with the Jesuits and started accusing them of pride and arrogance, of abusive extraterritorial powers in Nagasaki, and of concealing the best silks from Ieyasu. Murayama advocated for the development of direct trading relations between Japan and China, and for the expansion of the Red seal ship system to carry the silk trade.