Jōjima was from Saga Prefecture. He was a graduate of the 40th class of the Imperial Japanese Naval Academy in 1912, where he placed 111th out of 144 cadets. He served as midshipman on the cruiserAzuma and battlecruiserIkoma. After being commissioned as ensign, he was assigned to the battlecruiser Ibuki and then Akashi, and then back to Ikoma.
As a sub-lieutenant, he served on Nisshin, battleshipAsahi, and the destroyerHatsuharu. He was promoted to lieutenant in 1919 after attending advanced navigation courses, and became chief navigator on the patrol boat Manshu, transport Takasaki, minelayer Katsuriki, seaplane carrier Wakamiya, oiler Shiriya, cruisers Tatsuta, Natori, Abukuma, Haguro, and aircraft carrierKaga.
Jōjima was promoted to rear admiral on 1 May 1942. As commander of naval aviation units throughout the war, he also led the seaplane tenders of R-Area Air Force that participated in the defense of Guadalcanal during the Guadalcanal campaign including the Battle of Cape Esperance and Japanese efforts to recapture Henderson Field in 1942.
Surviving the war, Jōjima died in 1967.