Veracruz is a large city in the state of Veracruz in Central Mexico. The locals call their city “Puerto” (port) to differentiate the city from the state of Veracruz. The Port of Veracruz remains the core of its economy. It is also famous for its nightlife, and its spacious downtown area near the harbor (zocalo) comes alive with music and dancing with a strong Cuban influence. Highlights are the annual carnival celebrations around February when the party atmosphere is particularly raucous and hotel rooms become difficult to find.
Veracruz has a rich history. It has been the main gate of the country for sea travelers and products since its foundation. In this region, the Spanish first entered Mexico in the 16th century and remained for three centuries, forever changing the region. About 20 km northwest from Puerto Veracruz, in a town known as La Antingua Veracruz, Hernán Cortés first landed in Mexico. Veracruz would be one of the main ports of the Spanish Treasure Fleets. From its harbor, Mexican silver and the Asian silks, porcelain and spices of the Acapulco–Manila galleon trade were loaded onto galleons for transport to Spain. San Juan de Ulua fortress, located on an island off the city’s coast, was built in the 16th century to guard against pirate attacks. It was the scene of the final stand of Spanish colonialism in the New Spain, being occupied by Spanish soldiers for four years after Mexico’s War of Independence. Veracruz has witnessed four foreign invasions, earning the city the title ‘Cuatro Veces Heroica’ “Four times Heroic”. Two of these attacks led to full-scale invasions of Mexico which retraced the route of Cortés, by the U.S. in 1847 and France in 1862.
Despite its status as the oldest European settlement on the American mainland, much of the colonial city was destroyed by invasions. The city walls were demolished during the era of Porfirio Diaz. However, there is some significant historic architecture, including two historic fortresses, several museums, and historical buildings in the Malecon.
A few beaches can be found north of Veracruz, but the beaches and water are not very clean; beach lovers might want to go north to Tecolutla or south to Los Tuxtlas.
The local language is Spanish. More than half (but not all) of the hospitality workers speak English. Local people are known as jarochos. This denomination is not only for the people of the city but for the whole region of the State of Veracruz, known as “Llanuras de Sotavento.” The jarochos are friendly people who love to be outdoors. The weather is mild, averaging between 25 and 32°C, but between January and March high winds from the north known as “nortes” can reach up to 120 km/h.